One of the longest and most difficult of all Mormon colonization projects occurred in the last quarter of the 19th century as a direct response to the crusade in the United States against the unpopular doctrine of polygamy. In 1884 the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints officially began to advise heads of families to prepare to flee the unfriendly environment. Land was purchased and the faithful who wished began to make the long journey over tremendous physical obstacles to Mexico, to the area of Casas Grandes and the valley of Chihuahua. Many had to sell their lands and belongings at considerable loss but, with great spirit, they organized themselves and went by railroad or by wagon trains to their new colony. A set of directions was finally published in 1888, but most of these Mormons arrived at their destination after suffering from lack of water, abundance of mud and gumbo, hostile Indians, danger from rattlesnakes, shortage of grazing for the animals, and the intrasigence of Mexican border officials.