An analysis of Joseph Smith's doctrinal teachings on priesthood are set forth. He demonstrates that the Prophet organized a structural hierarchy for two different organizations: the institutional Church of Christ and the Church of the Firstborn. Evidence is given to demonstrate that the endowment was originally intended to be broken up into four segments, with each having its own temple. For whatever reason, Joseph Smith's teaching of this priesthood doctrine did not occur until Nauvoo, although he probably had a basic understanding of these principles as early as 1832 (with his initial learning of the doctrine possibly extending to as early as 1823). He describes the process and purpose of the endowment of the fourth token and the second annointing. He views the patriarchal priesthood as represented by the fourth token as being the principal cause of the succession crisis of 1844. He points out a distinction between the sealing keys and the priesthood of king and priest.