The Lemhi Shoshoni : Ethnogenesis, Sociological Transformations, and the Construction of a Tribal Nation
American Indian Quarterly
Describes the ethnic, cultural, and political evolution and transformation of the Lemhi Shoshone tribal nation during the 19th-20th centuries. Before 1855, a set of complex processes fused the distinct Agaidika, Tukudeka, and Kucundika peoples, who occupied a region encompassing southeastern Idaho and the southern portion of the northwestern Great Plains. They culturally and geopolitically merged with the Lemhi Shoshone when the Mormons settled in their area in 1855. These three groups used the Mormon mission, until it was dismantled in 1858, to expand trade, receive access to food, and experience protection from their enemies. During 1863-74, Indian wars and an active US military campaign against Native Americans resulted in the 1867 establishment of the Fort Hall Indian Reservation and the removal of all area Indians to that reservation. The Lemhi resisted the removal, and in 1875 President Ulysses S. Grant created the Lemhi Valley Indian Reservation, recognizing the Lemhi as distinct. (The Lemhi then included mixed Bannock and other Shoshone members.) By 1905, however, the Lemhi were removed to a portion of the Fort Hall reservation. In 1994 the Lemhi began to pursue federal tribal status recognition, which in 2001 was still unresolved.