Charles Redd Monographs in Western History, No. 9. Provo, Utah
Brigham Young University Press
'In this article, defunct Mormon settlements are enumerated and then classified according to 'reason for failure.' Lastly, these 'reasons' are analyzed.' The study is limited to those settlements founded before 1900. The 88 defunct settlements enumerated are divided into two major classes: (1) those that failed because of pressures from outside forces over which the Mormons had little or not control, and (2) those that ceased to exist of their own volition and not because of external pressures. Those that failed because of external pressures constituted the smallest class--26 out of 497, or 5.2 percent. If the defunct settlements of the Midwest, Canada, and Mexico are included, the rate increases to 7.8 precent--42 out of 537. These outside pressures included Indian conflicts, the Utah War, Nevada Tax problems, religious conflicts, the Mexican Revolution. The settlements that ceased of their own volition did so largely because of environmental factors. These amounted to 46 settlements, or 8.6 percent of 537 settlements. The significant fact, however, is not that the 46 settlements failed, but that the marginal nature of the areas colonized did not lead to a much higher failure rate.